Carbon Cycle Group Peer-reviewed publications Review articles and book chapters PhD and Diploma-theses

Peer-reviewed publications since 1994:




  • Levin, I., Karstens, U., Eritt, M., Maier, F., Arnold, S., Rzesanke, D., Hammer, S., Ramonet, M., Vítková, G., Conil, S., Heliasz, M., Kubistin, D., and Lindauer, M.: A dedicated flask sampling strategy developed for ICOS stations based on CO2 and CO measurements and STILT footprint modelling, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11161-11180, 2020,
  • Ramonet, M., P. Ciais, F. Apadula, J. Bartyzel , A. Bastos, P. Bergamaschi, P. E. Blanc, D. Brunner, L. C. d. Torchiaro, F. Calzolari, H. Chen, L. Chmura, A. Colomb, S. Conil, P. Cristofanelli, E. Cuevas, R. Curcoll, M. Delmotte, A. d. Sarra, L. Emmenegger, G. Forster, A. Frumau, C. Gerbig, F. Gheusi, S. Hammer, L. Haszpra, J. Hatakka, L. Hazan, M. Heliasz, S. Henne, A. Hensen, O. Hermansen, P. Keronen, R. Kivi, K. Kominkova, D. Kubistin, O. Laurent, T. Laurila, J. Lavric, I. Lehner, K.E.J. Lehtinen, A. Leskinen, M. Leuenberger, I. Levin, M. Lindauer, M. Lopez, C. L. Myhre, I. Mammarella, G. Manca, A. Manning, M. V. Marek, P. Marklund, D. Martin, F. Meinhardt, N. Mihalopoulos, M. Molder, J. A. Morgui, J. Necki, S. O'Doherty, C. O'Dowd, M. Ottosson, C. Philippon, S. Piacentino, J. M. Pichon, C. Plass-Duelmer, A. Resovsky, L.Rivier, X. Rodó, M.K. Sha, H. Scheeren, D. Sferlazzo, T. G. Spain, K. M. Stanley, M. Steinbacher, P. Trisolano, A. Vermeulen, G. Vítková, D. Weyrauch, I. Xueref-Remy, K. Yala and C. Y. Kwok (2020): The fingerprint of the summer 2018 drought in Europe on ground-based atmospheric CO2 measurements. Phil. Trans. of the Royal Soc. B, accepted. doi:10.1098/rstb.2019.0513.
  • Grossi, C., Chambers, S. D., Llido, O., Vogel, F. R., Kazan, V., Capuana, A., Werczynski, S., Curcoll, R., Delmotte, M., Vargas, A., Morguí, J.-A., Levin, I., and Ramonet, M.: Inter-comparison study of atmospheric 222Rn and 222Rn progeny monitors. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2241–2255, 2020, doi:10.5194/amt-13-2241-2020












  • Schulze, E.D., Ciais, P., Luyssaert, S., Freibauer, A., Janssens, I.A., Soussana, J.F., Smith, P., Grace, J., Levin, I., Thiruchittampalam, B., Heimann, M., Dolman, A.J., Valentini, R., Bousquet, P., Peylin, P., Peters, W., Rödenbeck, C., Etiope, G., Vuichard, N., Wattenbach, M., Nabuurs, G.J., Poussi, Z., Nieschulze, J., Gash, J.H. and the CarboEurope Team 2009. Europe s Greenhouse-Gas Balance: Methane and nitrous oxide emissions compensate CO2 sinks. Nature Geoscience 2, 842 - 850, DOI: 101038/NGEO686.
  • Bergamaschi, P., Frankenberg, C., Meirink, J.F., Krol, M., Villani, M.G., Houweling, S., Dentener, F., Dlugokencky, E.J., Miller, J.B., Gatti, L.V., Engel, A. and Levin, I. 2009. Inverse modeling of global and regional CH4 emissions using SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals. J. Geophys. Res. 114, D22301, 28 PP., 2009 doi:10.1029/2009JD012287.
  • Naegler, T. and Levin, I. 2009, Observation-based global biospheric excess radiocarbon inventory 1963 - 2005. J. Geophys. Res. 114, D17302, doi:10.1029/2008JD011100.
  • Naegler, T. and Levin, I. 2009, Biosphere-atmosphere gross carbon exchange flux and the δ13CO2 and Δ14CO2 disequilibria constrained by the biospheric excess radiocarbon inventory. J. Geophys. Res. 114, D17302, doi:10.1029/2008JD011116.
  • Worthy, D. E. J., Chan, E., Ishizawa, M. Chan, D. Poss, C., Dlugokencky, E. J., Maksyutov, S. and Levin, I. 2009. Decreasing anthropogenic methane emissions in Europe and Siberia inferred from continuous carbon dioxide and methane observations at Alert, Canada. J. Geophys. Res. 114, D10301, DOI: 10.1029/2008JD011239.
  • Hammer, S., Vogel, F., Kaul, M., and Levin, I., 2009. The H2/CO ratio of emissions from combustion sources: Comparison of top-down with bottom-up measurements in south-west Germany. Tellus 61B, 547-555, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2009.00418.x.
  • Hammer, S. and Levin, I., 2009. Seasonal variation of the molecular hydrogen uptake by soils inferred from continuous atmospheric observations in Heidelberg, south-west Germany. Tellus B, 556-565, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2009.00417.x.
  • Naegler, T. 2009. Reconciliation of excess 14C-constrained global CO2 piston velocity estimates. Tellus 61B, 372-384, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00408.x.
  • Schmitt, S., Hanselmann, A., Wollschläger, U., Hammer, S., and Levin, I., 2009. Investigation of parameters controlling the soil sink of atmospheric molecular hydrogen. Tellus 61B, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00402.x
  • Engel, A., Möbius, T., Bönisch, H., Schmidt, U., Heinz, R., Levin, I., Atlas, E., Aoki, S., Nakazawa, T., Sugawara, S., Moore, F., Hurst, D., Elkins, J., Schauffler, S., Andrews, A., and Boering, K., 2009. Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30 years. Nature Geosci. 2, doi:10.1038/NGEO388.
  • May, B., Wagenbach, D., Hammer, S., Steier, P., Puxbaum, H., and Pio, C. (2009). The anthropogenic influence on carbonaceous aerosol in the European background. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 61(2), 464-472.


  • Levin, I., Hammer, S., Kromer, B., and Meinhard, F., 2008. Radiocarbon Observations in Atmospheric CO2: Determining Fossil Fuel CO2 over Europe using Jungfraujoch Observations as Background. Sci. Tot. Environ., doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.10.019.
  • Levin, I. and Rödenbeck, C., 2008. Can the envisaged reductions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions be detected by atmospheric observations? Naturwissenschaften, doi:10.1007/s00114-007-0313-4.
  • Hammer, S., Glatzel-Mattheier, H., Müller, L., Sabasch, M., Schmidt, M., Schmitt, S., Schönherr, C., Vogel, F., Worthy, D. E. and Levin, I. 2008 A gas chromatographic system for high-precision quasi-continuous atmospheric measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO and H2




  • Röckmann, T., and Levin, I., 2005. High-precision determination of the changing isotopic composition of atmospheric N2O from 1990 to 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 110, D21304, doi:10.1029/2005JD006066.



  • Levin, I., Kromer, B., Schmidt, M., and Sartorius, H., 2003. A novel approach for independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by 14CO2 observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(23), 2194 doi. 10.1029/2003GL018477.
  • Manning, S.W., Barbetti, M., Kromer, B., Kuniholm, P.I., Levin, I., Newton, M.W., Reimer, P.J., 2003. No systematic early bias to Mediterranean 14C ages: radiocarbon measurements from tree-ring and air samples provide tight limits to age offsets. Radiocarbon44, 739-754.
  • Cuntz, M., Ciais, P. Hoffmann, G., Allison, C.E., Francey, R.J., Knorr, W., Tans, P.P., White, J.W.C., and Levin, I. 2003. A comprehensive global 3D model of d18O in atmospheric CO2: Mapping the atmospheric signal. J. Geophys. Res. 108(D17), 4528
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  • Schmidt, M., Graul, R., Sartorius, H., and Levin, I. 2003. The Schauinsland CO2 record: 30 years of continental observations and their implications for the variability of the European CO2 budget. J. Geophys. Res. 108(D19), 4619 doi: 10.1029/2002JD003085.
  • Kanzawa, H., T. Sugita, H. Nakajima, G.E. Bodeker, H. Oelhaf, M. Stowasser, G. Wetzel, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, I. Levin, G.C. Toon, B. Sen, J.-F. Blavier, S. Aoki, T. Nakazawa, K.W. Jucks, D.G. Johnson, W.A. Traub, C. Camy-Peyret, S. Payan, P. Jeseck, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, M. von Koenig, H. Bremer, H. Kuellmann, J.H. Park, L.L. Pan, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, and Y. Sasano, 2003. Validation and data characteristics of nitrous oxide and methane profiles observed by the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) and processed with the Version 5.20 algorithm. J. Geophys. Res. 108(D16), 8003
  • Necki, J., M. Schmidt, K. Rozanski, M. Zimnoch, A. Korus, J. Lasa, R. Graul and I. Levin, 2003. Six-years record of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane at a high-altitude mountain site in Poland. Tellus 55B, 94-104


  • Chevillard A., Ciais, P., Karstens, U., Heimann, M., Schmidt, M., Levin, I., Jacob, D. and Podzun, R. 2002. Transport of 222Rn using the on-line regional scale model REMO: A detailed comparison with measurements over Europe. Tellus 54B, 850-871.
  • Sidorov, K., Sorgachev, A., Langendörfer, U., Lloyd, J., Nepomnjashiy, I. L.,   Vygodskaya, N. N., Schmidt, M.and Levin, I. 2002. Seasonal variability of greenhouse gases in the lower troposphere above the middle eastern European Taiga (Syktyvkar, Russia). Tellus 54B, 735-748.
  • Langendörfer, U., Cuntz, M., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., Bariac, T., Milyukova, I., Kolle, O., Naegler, T. and Levin, I. 2002. Modelling of biospheric CO2 gross fluxes via oxygen isotopes in a spruce forest canopy: A 222Radon-calibrated box model approach. Tellus 54B, 476-496.
  • Levin, I., M. Born, M. Cuntz, U. Langendörfer, S. Mantsch, T. Naegler, M. Schmidt, A. Varlagin, S. Verclas and D. Wagenbach, 2002. Observations of atmospheric variability and soil exhalation rate of Radon-222 at a Russian forest site: Technical approach and deployment for boundary layer studies. Tellus 54B, 462-475.
  • Levin, I., P. Ciais, R. Langenfelds, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, M. Gloor, K. Sidorov, N. Tchebakova, M. Heimann, E.D. Schulze, N.N. Vygodskaya, O. Shibistova and J. Lloyd, 2002. Three years of trace gas observations over the EuroSiberian domain derived from aircraft sampling - a concerted action. Tellus 54B, 696-712.
  • Winckler, G., W. Aeschbach-Hertig, J. Holocher, R. Kipfer, I. Levin, C. Poss, G. Rehder and E. Suess, 2002. Noble Gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates from Hydrate Ridge. Geophys. Res. Lett.m 29, 10, 10.1029/2001GL014013.
  • Schiller, C. R. Bauer, F. Cairo, T. Deshler, A. Dörnbrack, J. Elkins, A. Engel, H. Flentje, N. Larsen, I. Levin, M. Müller, S. Oltmans, H. Ovarlez, J. Ovarlez, J. Schreiner, F. Stroh, C. Voigt and H. Vömel, 2002. Dehydration in the Arctic stratosphere during the THESEO2000 / SOLVE campaigns. J. Geophys. Res. 107, D20, doi:10.1029/2001JD000463, 2002
  • Engel, A., M. Strunk, M. Müller, H.-P. Haase, C. Poss, I. Levin, U. Schmidt, 2002. Temporal development of total chlorine in the high latitude stratosphere based on reference distributions of mean age derived from CO2 and SF6. J. Geophys. Res. 107, D12, 10.1029/2001JD000584, 2002.



  • Strunk, M., A. Engel, U. Schmidt, C.M. Volk, T. Wetter, I. Levin, and H. Glatzel-Mattheier, 2000. CO2 and SF6 as stratospheric age tracers: consistency and the effect of mesospheric SF6-loss. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3, 341-344.
  • Worthy, D.E.J., I. Levin, J.F. Hopper and N.B.A. Trivett, 2000. Evidence for a link between climate change and northern wetlands methane emissions. J. Geophys. Res.105, D3, 4031-4038.
  • Hesshaimer, V. and I. Levin, 2000. Revision of the stratospheric bomb 14CO2 inventory. J. Geophys. Res.105, D9, 11,641-11,658.
  • Levin, I. and V. Hesshaimer, 2000. Radiocarbon - a unique tracer of global carbon cycle dynamics. Radiocarbon 42, 69-80.
  • Schüßler, W., R. Neubert, I. Levin, N. Fischer and C. Sonntag, 2000. Determination of microbial vs. root produced CO2 in an agricultural ecosystem by means of 13CO2 measurements in soil air. Tellus 52B, 909-918.



  • Rohrer, F., D. Brüning, E.S. Grobler, M. Weber, D.H. Ehhalt, R. Neubert, W. Schüßler, and I. Levin, 1998. Mixing ratios and photostationary state of NO and NO2 observed during the POPCORN field campaign at a rural site in Germany. J. Atmos. Chem. 31, 119-137.
  • Worthy D.E.J., I. Levin, N.B.A. Trivett, A.J. Kuhlmann, J.F. Hopper and M.K. Ernst, 1998. Seven years of continuous methane observations at a remote boreal site in Ontario, Canada. J. Geophys. Res. 103, D103, 15 995 - 16 007.
  • Kuhlmann, A.J., D. Worthy, N.B.A. Trivett and I. Levin, 1998. Methane emissions from a wetland region within the Hudson Bay Lowland: An atmospheric approach. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16 009 - 16 016.


  • Levin, I. and B. Kromer, 1997. Twenty years of atmospheric 14CO2 observations at Schauinsland station, Germany. Radiocarbon 39, 205-218.
  • Kromer, B., J. Ambers, M.G.L. Baillie, P.E. Damon, V. Hesshaimer, J. Hofmann, L. Jöris, I. Levin, S. Manning, F.G. McCormac, J. van der Plicht, M. Spurk, M Stuiver and B. Weninger, 1997. Report: Summary of the Workshop "Aspects of high precision radiocarbon calibration". Radiocarbon 38, 607-610.




Review Articles & Book Chapters:

  • Levin, I. and Karstens, U. 2007. Quantifying fossil fuel CO2 over Europe. In: A. J. Dolman, A. Freibauer and R. Valentini (Eds.) Observing the Continental Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.
  • Levin, I. and V. Hesshaimer, 2000. Radiocarbon - a unique tracer of global carbon cycle dynamics. Radiocarbon 42, 69-80.

Diploma-, Master- and PhD Theses since 1996:

  • Hoheisel, A., 2015, Test einer neuen Methode zur Radonflussbestimmung mit Hilfe eines Rad7-Gerätes.
    Bachelor Thesis.
  • Roos, M., 2015, Atmosphärische 14CO2- und 222Radon-Messungen im Rahmen von ICOS-D.
    State Examination Thesis.
  • Schwingshackl, C., 2013, Experimental Validation of a Radon-222 Flux Map.
    Master Thesis.
  • Elsässer, C., 2013, Exploration of 10Be ice core records using a climatological model approach: Cosmogenic production versus climate variability.
    PhD Thesis.
  • Roos, M., 2013, Optimierung des Graphitisierungsprozesses zur Probenvorbereitung von 14C-Messungen mittels AMS.
    Bachelor Thesis.
  • Schmithüsen, D., 2012, Atmospheric and soil flux radon measurements in Heidelberg.
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Kromer, H., 2012. Untersuchung der Präzision und Reproduzierbarkeit von 14C-Messungen mit dem AMS-Beschleuniger MICADAS.
    Bachelor Thesis.
  • Vardag, S.N., 2012, CO2 source apportionment in the Heidelberg region using continuous 13CO2 measurements.
    Master Thesis.
  • Asgeirsson, B., 2012, Modelling radiocarbon and carbon cycle changes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene
    Master Thesis.
  • Konrad, G., 2011, Charakterisierung eines Fourier Transform Infrarot Spektrometers zur Messung atmosphärischer Spurengase und Vergleich mit etablierten Messmethoden.
    State Examination Thesis.
  • Wagner, V., 2011, Atmospheric trace gas and isotope measurements to monitor the effect of local emission changes in Isny im Allgäu.
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Ripp, C., 2010. Identizierung und Abschätzung der Quellstärke lokaler und regionaler SF6-Quellen.
    Bachelor Thesis.
  • Eichelmann, E., 2010, Evaluation of long-term continuous atmospheric N2O measurements in Heidelberg.
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Vogel, F., 2010, 14CO2-calibrated carbon monoxide as proxy to estimate the regional fossil fuel CO2 component at hourly resolution.
    PhD thesis.
  • Müller, L., 2009, Setup of a combined gaschromatographic system at the stations Schauinsland and Zugspitze for monitoring atmospheric H2 and other greenhouse gases.
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Jeschka, J., 2009, Setting up a new observation site for fossil fuel CO2 and other traces gases in Isny: A case study for long-term atmospheric monitoring.
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Schillert, A., 2009, Parameters influencing the seasonality of H2 uptake in soils.
    State Examination Thesis.
  • Hanselmann, A., 2008, Field study to assess uptake and emission of trace gases from soils.
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Hammer, S., 2008, Quantification of the regional H2 sources and sinks inferred from atmospheric trace gas variability.
    PhD Thesis.
  • Rentrop, M., 2007, Untersuchung natürlicher und anthropogener Quellen und Senken von Treibhausgasen im Rahmen von CarboSchools.
    State Examination Thesis.
  • Kaul, M., 2007, Isotopenverhältnisse im atmosphärischen Kohlendioxid und seine Quellen im Raum Heidelberg.
    State Examination Thesis.
  • Schmitt, S., 2007, Field investigation of the parameters controlling the soil sink of atmospheric molecular hydrogen.
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Schönherr, C., 2005, Investigating Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and Fossil Fuel CO2 in Heidelberg.
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Naegler, T., 2005, Simulating Bomb Radiocarbon: Consequences For The Global Carbon Cycle.
    PhD Thesis.
  • Schell, S., 2004, 222Radon-Profil-Messungen in Süd- und Ostdeutschland, Anwendung der Radon-Tracer-Methode zur Berechnung von CO2- und CH4- Flüssen,
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Frese, K., 2004. Auswertung flugzeuggestützter CO2-Messungen über Europa und Sibirien,
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Gamnitzer, U., 2003. Bilanzierung der Kohlendioxidemissionen in der Region Heidelberg mit Hilfe atmosphärischer CO2-, 14CO2- und CO-Messungen,
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Poß, C., 2003. Untersuchung der Variabilität des atmosphärischen Methanhaushalts hochpolarer Breiten anhand eines regionalen Trajektorienmodells und der Messung stabiler Isotope,
    PhD Thesis.
  • Cuntz, M., 2002. A comprehensive global 3D model of 18O in atmospheric CO2,
    PhD Thesis.
  • Veidt, C., 2002. Umbau und Test der Heidelberger Methan-Isotopen-Aufbereitung für die Deuterium-Analyse von Reinluftproben mit Infrarotabsorptionsspektroskopie,
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Langendörfer, U., 2001. Sauerstoffisotope als Indikator für biosphärische CO2 Bruttoflüsse - eine Machbarkeitsstudie,
    PhD Thesis.
  • Schmidt, R., 2001. Entwicklung eines trajektoriengestützten Modells zur Bestimmung der Methanquellen der nördlichen Nordhemisphäre,
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Salewski, W., 2001. Aufbau und Test eines automatischen Luftprobennahme-systems zur Isotopenanalyse von CO2-Tagesgängen,
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Bader, J., 2001. Gaschromatographische Messungen von atmosphärischem CH4, CO2, N2O und SF6 am Schauinsland und an der Zugspitze,
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Jutzi, S., 2001. Verteilung der Boden-222Radon-Exhalation in Europa,
    State Examination Thesis.
  • Neumann, E., 1999. Methanemissionen aus natürlichen Feuchtgebieten,
    State Examination Thesis.
  • Naegler, T., 1999. Aufbau und Charakterisierung eines IR-CO2-Monitor-Systems zur Bestimmung biosphärischer CO2-Variabilität,
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Schmidt, M., 1999. Messung und Bilanzierung anthropogener Treibhausgase in Deutschland,
    PhD Thesis.
  • Poß, C., 1998. Messung stabiler Methan-Isotopomere an Quellen und Luftproben der nördlichen Nordhemisphäre,
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Marik, T., 1998. Atmospheric 13C and D Measurements to Balance the Global Methane Budget,
    PhD Thesis.
  • Neubert, R., 1998. Messung der stabilen Isotopomere des atmosphärischen Kohlendioxids,
    PhD Thesis.
  • Bönisch, H., 1997. Aufbau einer teilautomatisierten Aufbereitungsapparatur für Methan aus Luftproben zur massenspektrometrischen Isotopiebestimmung,
    Diploma Thesis
  • Cuntz, M., 1997. Der Heidelberger 222Radon-Monitor: Kalibrierung, Optimierung, Anwendung,
    Diploma Thesis.
  • Glatzel-Mattheier, H., 1997. Bilanzierung von CH4-Emissionen in Deutschland anhand atmosphärischer Messungen in Heidelberg,
    PhD Thesis.
  • Hesshaimer, V., 1997. Tracing the Global Carbon Cycle with Bomb Radiocarbon,
    PhD Thesis.
  • Bräunlich, M., 1996. Gaschromatographische Messungen von atmosphärischem N2O in Heidelberger Luft,
    Diploma Thesis.