Research Projects     PeopleTeaching    Open Theses    Publications

Greenhouse Gases and Water Isotopes

Coal Mining a source of methan emissions

The main interest of the team is to investigate the cycle of atmospheric water and greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O. Through the study of atmospheric concentrations and isotopic composition of the above trace gases the group searches for a quantification of sources and sinks and atmospheric transport pathways. This is done through accurate atmospheric measurements on local to regional scales, including punctuated studies of sources and sinks. Further, radioactive tracers of atmospheric transport are used and physical processes steering isotope fractionation during the transport and transformation of water and atmospheric trace gases are studied. Moreover, conceptual transport models are developed. The group is involved in the verification of greenhouse gas emissions in cooperation with its international partners.

Research Projects

Quantification of methane emissions

view of the mobile greenhouse gas instrumentation

In this project we identify and evaluate methane emissions by developing new and advanced mobile methane measurements tools. Here we bridge the gap between global-scale scientific estimates from in situ monitoring programs and the ‘bottom-up’ estimates of emissions from local sources, which are used in the national reporting. Cavity ring down spectrometers are operated in our service car, or carried on a bicycle to detect and measure methane plumes in the city or close to emitters like landfills, biogas plants or ruminates.  These methods were also applied during campaigns in the Upper Silesian coal mining region or in Romanian oil and gas fields.

MEMO2 Project ( MEthane goes MObile – MEasurements and Modelling)
ROMEO Project (ROmanian Methane Emissions from Oil & gas)

Water Isotopes in the Atmosphere

rain collector and water isotope analysers

Since 2013 we monitor the isotope ratrios of water vapor and precipitation in Heidelberg to study the water cycle. With the advent of cavity ring down spectrometers, water isotope measurements have become easily accessible. However, high quality measures and require fundamental knowledge of the analysers and an adapted calibration strategy. Through this project we monitor the water vapor isotope composition in Heidelberg air and trace the isotope composition of rain.

Analysis of long-term measurements

The German environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt-UBA) is running a network of rural monitoring stations. Schauinsland Station in the black forest has one of the longest in-situ measurement records of CO2 and CH4 in Europe, starting already 1972 or 1992 respectively. Within this project, we quantify the influence of local methane and CO2 source in the catchment area of the stations and analys the long term measurement.

Project: UBA-Klimagase

Multiple substituted isotopologues in atmospheric CO2

mass spectrometer and cavity ring down instrument

Multiple substituted isotopologues (clumped isotopes) such as 18O13C16O in CO2, denoted by Δ47, provides an additional constraint to study the atmospheric CO2 budget. Δ47 in air CO2 can help to identify the mechanisms of CO2 sources and sinks. Δ47 values of CO2 are temperature dependent and can therefore be used to separate CO2 produced from fossil fuel burning of several 100°C from biogenic plant respiration at ambient temperature. In this project, we build up a fully automatic extraction and measurement line, to analyses Δ47 from atmospheric samples. Process studies will be carried out in urban and rural areas, close to CO2 sources (traffic, industrial emitters) and in the forest.

People

Martina Schmidt,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-5481, email: Martina Schmidt 

Antje Hoheisel,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-6527, email: Antje Hoheisel 

Piotr Korben,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-6317, email: Piotr Korben 

Henrik Eckhardt,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-5477, email: Henrik Eckhardt 

Michael Sabasch,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-5477, email: Michael Sabasch  

Julia Wietzel,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-6386, email: Julia Wietzel 

Anna Scheipers,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-6512, email: Anna Scheipers

Carolina Nelson,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-65.., email: Carolina Nelson

Sebastian Stezura,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-65.., email: Sebastian Stezura

Marvin Seyfarth,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-65.., email: Marvin Seyfarth

Marcel Awenius,    Tel: +49 (0)6221 54-65.., email: Marcel Awenius

Alumni

Nicole Büttner, (Master student) now at KIT

Johannes Gry, (Master student)

Elisabeth Zepf, (Master student)

Florian Dinger, (Master student) now PhD student at MPI Mainz and IUP Heidelberg

Christiane Yeman, (Master student) now Phd student at ETH Zuerich

David Leinfelder, (Master student)

Simone Wald, (Bachelor student)

Ellis King, (Bachelor student from Imperial College London)

Teaching

seminar

We teach lectures, tutorials, seminars, and conduct practical exercises in both Physics and Earth Sciences . Throughout the Earth Sciences the focus is on 'statistics and R programing' as part of the Bachelor program. In Physics, we are involved at all levels of teaching but our focus is on the tutorials of 'Environmental Physics (MKEP4)'. The Bachelor seminar on 'Isotope methods in Environmental Physics' has become a successful series. Moreover, the numerous scientific projects of bachelor, master and PhD students are important parts of our eduction on greenhouse gas cycles and water isotopes. Our course program is on LSF . and the course material is provided through the platforms 'elearning2' and in physics also through the 'tutorial platform'. If you are searching for a study project or just want to get involved do not hesitate to get in touch with us. We are waiting for enthusiastic students to conduct scientific projects for a better understanding of global greenhouse gas and water cycle including models and experiments.

Bachelor-, Master- and PhD Theses

We are currently offering a master thesis in the field of mobile methane measurement at biogas plants and a master thesis in the field of multiple substituted CO2 isotopologues.

Publications

Books view

2020

  • Fiehn, A., Kostinek, J., Eckl, M., Klausner, T., Gałkowski, M., Chen, J., Gerbig, C., Röckmann, T., Maazallahi, H., Schmidt, M., Korbeń, P., Nȩcki, J., Jagoda, P., Wildmann, N., Mallaun, C., Bun, R., Nickl, A.-L., Jöckel, P., Fix, A., and Roiger, A.: Estimating CH4, CO2, and CO emissions from coal mining and industrial activities in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin using an aircraft-based mass balance approach, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-282, in review, 2020. (go to)

  • Baray, J.-L., Deguillaume, L., Colomb, A., Sellegri, K., Freney, E., Rose, C., Van Baelen, J., Pichon, J.-M., Picard, D., Fréville, P., Bouvier, L., Ribeiro, M., Amato, P., Banson, S., Bianco, A., Borbon, A., Bourcier, L., Bras, Y., Brigante, M., Cacault, P., Chauvigné, A., Charbouillot, T., Chaumerliac, N., Delort, A.-M., Delmotte, M., Dupuy, R., Farah, A., Febvre, G., Flossmann, A., Gourbeyre, C., Hervier, C., Hervo, M., Huret, N., Joly, M., Kazan, V., Lopez, M., Mailhot, G., Marinoni, A., Masson, O., Montoux, N., Parazols, M., Peyrin, F., Pointin, Y., Ramonet, M., Rocco, M., Sancelme, M., Sauvage, S., Schmidt, M., Tison, E., Vaïtilingom, M., Villani, P., Wang, M., Yver-Kwok, C., and Laj, P.: Cézeaux-Aulnat-Opme-Puy De Dôme: a multi-site for the long-term survey of the tropospheric composition and climate change, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3413–3445, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-3413-2020, 2020. (go to)

  • Kalb, M., Kluge, T., Eckhardt, H., Weise, A., Prokhorov, I., Kraml, M., Eiche, E. & Neumann, T.: CO2, gas-H2Oliquid isotope exchange rates up to 150° C–Experimental study and application to hydrothermal CO2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 269, 167-183, 2020 (go to)

2019

  • Hoheisel, A., Yeman, C., Dinger, F., Eckhardt, H., and Schmidt, M.: An improved method for mobile characterisation of δ13CH4 source signatures and its application in Germany, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1123-1139, 10.5194/amt-12-1123-2019, 2019 (go to)

2018

  • Bergamaschi, P., Karstens, U., Manning, A. J., Saunois, M., Tsuruta, A., Berchet, A., Vermeulen, A. T., Arnold, T., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Hammer, S., Levin, I., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Lopez, M., Lavric, J., Aalto, T., Chen, H. L., Feist, D. G., Gerbig, C., Haszpra, L., Hermansen, O., Manca, G., Moncrieff, J., Meinhardt, F., Necki, J., Galkowski, M., O'Doherty, S., Paramonova, N., Scheeren, H. A., Steinbacher, M., and Dlugokencky, E.: Inverse modelling of European CH4 emissions during 2006-2012 using different inverse models and reassessed atmospheric observations, Atmos Chem Phys, 18, 901-920, 10.5194/acp-18-901-2018, 2018. (go to)
     
  • Xueref-Remy, I., Dieudonne, E., Vuillemin, C., Lopez, M., Lac, C., Schmidt, M., Delmotte, M., Chevallier, F., Ravetta, F., Perrussel, O., Ciais, P., Breon, F. M., Broquet, G., Ramonet, M., Spain, T. G., and Ampe, C.: Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Paris megacity area, Atmos Chem Phys, 18, 3335-3362, 10.5194/acp-18-3335-2018, 2018 (go to )

2017

  • Ventrillard, I., Xueref-Remy, I., Schmidt, M., Kwok, C. Y., Fain, X., and Romanini, D.: Comparison of optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for ground-based and airborne measurements of atmospheric CO concentration, Atmos Meas Tech, 10, 1803-1812, 10.5194/amt-10-1803-2017, 2017 (go to)

2016

  • Koffi, E. N., Bergamaschi, P., Karstens, U., Krol, M., Segers, A., Schmidt, M., Levin, I., Vermeulen, A. T., Fisher, R. E., Kazan, V., Baltink, H. K., Lowry, D., Manca, G., Meijer, H. A. J., Moncrieff, J., Pal, S., Ramonet, M., Scheeren, H. A., and Williams, A. G.: Evaluation of the boundary layer dynamics of the TM5 model over Europe, Geosci Model Dev, 9, 3137-3160, 10.5194/gmd-9-3137-2016, 2016(go to)
     
  • Lebegue, B., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Wastine, B., Yver Kwok, C., Laurent, O., Belviso, S., Guemri, A., Philippon, C., Smith, J., and Conil, S.: Comparison of nitrous oxide (N2O) analyzers for high-precision measurements of atmospheric mole fractions, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1221-1238, 10.5194/amt-9-1221-2016, 2016 (go to) Staufer, J., Broquet, G., Breon, F. M., Puygrenier, V., Chevallier, F., Xueref-Remy, I., Dieudonne, E., Lopez, M., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Perrussel, O., Lac, C., Wu, L., and Ciais, P.: The first 1-year-long estimate of the Paris region fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on atmospheric inversion, Atmos Chem Phys, 16, 14703-14726, 10.5194/acp-16-14703-2016, 2016a (go to)

2015

  • Bergamaschi, P., Corazza, M., Karstens, U., Athanassiadou, M., Thompson, R. L., Pison, I., Manning, A. J., Bousquet, P., Segers, A., Vermeulen, A. T., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Meinhardt, F., Aalto, T., Haszpra, L., Moncrieff, J., Popa, M. E., Lowry, D., Steinbacher, M., Jordan, A., O'Doherty, S., Piacentino, S., and Dlugokencky, E.: Top-down estimates of European CH4 and N2O emissions based on four different inverse models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 715-736, 10.5194/acp-15-715-2015, 2015 (go to)
     
  • Bréon, F. M., Broquet, G., Puygrenier, V., Chevallier, F., Xueref-Remy, I., Ramonet, M., Dieudonné, E., Lopez, M., Schmidt, M., Perrussel, O., and Ciais, P.: An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1707-1724, 10.5194/acp-15-1707-2015, 2015 (go to)
     
  • Lebegue, B., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Wastine, B., Yver Kwok, C., Laurent, O., Belviso, S., Guemri, A., Philippon, C., Smith, J., Conil, S., Jost, H. J., and Crosson, E. R.: Comparison of nitrous oxide (N2O) analyzers for high-precision measurements of atmospheric mole fractions, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 8, 10937-10982, 10.5194/amtd-8-10937-2015, 2015 (go to)
     
  • Lin, X., Indira, N. K., Ramonet, M., Delmotte, M., Ciais, P., Bhatt, B. C., Reddy, M. V., Angchuk, D., Balakrishnan, S., Jorphail, S., Dorjai, T., Mahey, T. T., Patnaik, S., Begum, M., Brenninkmeijer, C., Durairaj, S., Kirubagaran, R., Schmidt, M., Swathi, P. S., Vinithkumar, N. V., Yver Kwok, C., and Gaur, V. K.: Five-year flask measurements of long-lived trace gases in India, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 15, 7171-7238, 10.5194/acpd-15-7171-2015, 2015a (go to)
     
  • Lin, X., Indira, N. K., Ramonet, M., Delmotte, M., Ciais, P., Bhatt, B. C., Reddy, M. V., Angchuk, D., Balakrishnan, S., Jorphail, S., Dorjai, T., Mahey, T. T., Patnaik, S., Begum, M., Brenninkmeijer, C., Durairaj, S., Kirubagaran, R., Schmidt, M., Swathi, P. S., Vinithkumar, N. V., Yver Kwok, C., and Gaur, V. K.: Long-lived atmospheric trace gases measurements in flask samples from three stations in India, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9819-9849, 10.5194/acp-15-9819-2015, 2015b (go to)
     
  • Locatelli, R., Bousquet, P., Hourdin, F., Saunois, M., Cozic, A., Couvreux, F., Grandpeix, J. Y., Lefebvre, M. P., Rio, C., Bergamaschi, P., Chambers, S. D., Karstens, U., Kazan, V., van der Laan, S., Meijer, H. A. J., Moncrieff, J., Ramonet, M., Scheeren, H. A., Schlosser, C., Schmidt, M., Vermeulen, A., and Williams, A. G.: Atmospheric transport and chemistry of trace gases in LMDz5B: evaluation and implications for inverse modelling, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 129-150, 10.5194/gmd-8-129-2015, 2015 (go to)
     
  • Lopez, M., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Bonne, J. L., Colomb, A., Kazan, V., Laj, P., and Pichon, J. M.: Three years of semicontinuous greenhouse gas measurements at the Puy de Dôme station (central France), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3941-3958, 10.5194/amt-8-3941-2015, 2015 (go to)
     
  • Pal, S., Lopez, M., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Gibert, F., Xueref-Remy, I., and Ciais, P.: Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and its impact on the Rn-222 concentration at a rural site in France, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 120, 623-643, 10.1002/2014jd022322, 2015 (go to)
     
  • Yver Kwok, C. E., Müller, D., Caldow, C., Lebègue, B., Mønster, J. G., Rella, C. W., Scheutz, C., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Warneke, T., Broquet, G., and Ciais, P.: Methane emission estimates using chamber and tracer release experiments for a municipal waste water treatment plant, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2853-2867, 10.5194/amt-8-2853-2015, 2015 (go to)

Prior to 2015 (sorted by authors name)

  • Belviso, S., Schmidt, M., Yver, C., Ramonet, M., Gros, V., and Launois, T.: Strong similarities between night-time deposition velocities of carbonyl sulphide and molecular hydrogen inferred from semi-continuous atmospheric observations in Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris region, Tellus B, 65, ARTN 20719 10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.20719, 2013 (go to)
     
  • Berchet, A., Pison, I., Chevallier, F., Bousquet, P., Conil, S., Geever, M., Laurila, T., Lavric, J., Lopez, M., Moncrieff, J., Necki, J., Ramonet, M., Schmidt, M., Steinbacher, M., and Tarniewicz, J.: Towards better error statistics for atmospheric inversions of methane surface fluxes, Atmos Chem Phys, 13, 7115-7132, DOI 10.5194/acp-13-7115-2013, 2013 (go to)
     
  • Broquet, G., Chevallier, F., Bréon, F. M., Kadygrov, N., Alemanno, M., Apadula, F., Hammer, S., Haszpra, L., Meinhardt, F., Morguí, J. A., Necki, J., Piacentino, S., Ramonet, M., Schmidt, M., Thompson, R. L., Vermeulen, A. T., Yver, C., and Ciais, P.: Regional inversion of CO2 ecosystem fluxes from atmospheric measurements: reliability of the uncertainty estimates, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9039-9056, 10.5194/acp-13-9039-2013, 2013 (go to)
     
  • Geibel, M. C., Messerschmidt, J., Gerbig, C., Blumenstock, T., Chen, H., Hase, F., Kolle, O., Lavric, J. V., Notholt, J., Palm, M., Rettinger, M., Schmidt, M., Sussmann, R., Warneke, T., and Feist, D. G.: Calibration of column-averaged CH4 over European TCCON FTS sites with airborne in-situ measurements, Atmos Chem Phys, 12, 8763-8775, DOI 10.5194/acp-12-8763-2012, 2012 (go to)
     
  • Batenburg, A. M., Walter, S., Pieterse, G., Levin, I., Schmidt, M., Jordan, A., Hammer, S., Yver, C., and Rockmann, T.: Temporal and spatial variability of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric molecular hydrogen: observations at six EUROHYDROS stations, Atmos Chem Phys, 11, 6985-6999, DOI 10.5194/acp-11-6985-2011, 2011 (go to)
     
  • Bousquet, P., Ringeval, B., Pison, I., Dlugokencky, E. J., Brunke, E. G., Carouge, C., Chevallier, F., Fortems-Cheiney, A., Frankenberg, C., Hauglustaine, D. A., Krummel, P. B., Langenfelds, R. L., Ramonet, M., Schmidt, M., Steele, L. P., Szopa, S., Yver, C., Viovy, N., and Ciais, P.: Source attribution of the changes in atmospheric methane for 2006-2008, Atmos Chem Phys, 11, 3689-3700, DOI 10.5194/acp-11-3689-2011, 2011a (go to)
     
  • Bousquet, P., Yver, C., Pison, I., Li, Y. S., Fortems, A., Hauglustaine, D., Szopa, S., Rayner, P. J., Novelli, P., Langenfelds, R., Steele, P., Ramonet, M., Schmidt, M., Foster, P., Morfopoulos, C., and Ciais, P.: A three-dimensional synthesis inversion of the molecular hydrogen cycle: Sources and sinks budget and implications for the soil uptake, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 116, Artn D01302 Doi 10.1029/2010jd014599, 2011b (go to)
     
  • Broquet, G., Chevallier, F., Rayner, P., Aulagnier, C., Pison, I., Ramonet, M., Schmidt, M., Vermeulen, A. T., and Ciais, P.: A European summertime CO2 biogenic flux inversion at mesoscale from continuous in situ mixing ratio measurements, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 116, Artn D23303 Doi 10.1029/2011jd016202, 2011 (go to)
     
  • Chevallier, F., Deutscher, N. M., Conway, T. J., Ciais, P., Ciattaglia, L., Dohe, S., Frohlich, M., Gomez-Pelaez, A. J., Griffith, D., Hase, F., Haszpra, L., Krummel, P., Kyro, E., Labuschagne, C., Langenfelds, R., Machida, T., Maignan, F., Matsueda, H., Morino, I., Notholt, J., Ramonet, M., Sawa, Y., Schmidt, M., Sherlock, V., Steele, P., Strong, K., Sussmann, R., Wennberg, P., Wofsy, S., Worthy, D., Wunch, D., and Zimnoch, M.: Global CO2 fluxes inferred from surface air-sample measurements and from TCCON retrievals of the CO2 total column, Geophys Res Lett, 38, Artn L24810 Doi 10.1029/2011gl049899, 2011 (go to)
     
  • Bergamaschi, P., Krol, M., Meirink, J. F., Dentener, F., Segers, A., van Aardenne, J., Monni, S., Vermeulen, A. T., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Yver, C., Meinhardt, F., Nisbet, E. G., Fisher, R. E., O'Doherty, S., and Dlugokencky, E. J.: Inverse modeling of European CH4 emissions 2001-2006, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 115, Artn D22309 Doi 10.1029/2010jd014180, 2010 (go to)
     
  • Croize, L., Mondelain, D., Camy-Peyret, C., Janssen, C., Lopez, M., Delmotte, M., and Schmidt, M.: Isotopic composition and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO2 with a diode laser making use of correlations between non-equivalent absorption cells, Appl Phys B-Lasers O, 101, 411-421, DOI 10.1007/s00340-010-4162-z, 2010 (go to)
     
  • Chevallier, F., Ciais, P., Conway, T. J., Aalto, T., Anderson, B. E., Bousquet, P., Brunke, E. G., Ciattaglia, L., Esaki, Y., Frohlich, M., Gomez, A., Gomez-Pelaez, A. J., Haszpra, L., Krummel, P. B., Langenfelds, R. L., Leuenberger, M., Machida, T., Maignan, F., Matsueda, H., Morgui, J. A., Mukai, H., Nakazawa, T., Peylin, P., Ramonet, M., Rivier, L., Sawa, Y., Schmidt, M., Steele, L. P., Vay, S. A., Vermeulen, A. T., Wofsy, S., and Worthy, D.: CO2 surface fluxes at grid point scale estimated from a global 21 year reanalysis of atmospheric measurements, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 115, Artn D21307 Doi 10.1029/2010jd013887, 2010 (go to)
     
  • Gibert, F., Joly, L., Xueref-Remy, I., Schmidt, M., Royer, A., Flamant, P. H., Ramonet, M., Parvitte, B., Durry, G., and Zeninari, V.: Inter-comparison of 2 mu m Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar, Laser Diode Spectrometer, LICOR NDIR analyzer and flasks measurements of near-ground atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio, Spectrochim Acta A, 71, 1914-1921, DOI 10.1016/j.saa.2008.07.010, 2009 (go to)
     
  • Chevillard, A., Ciais, P., Karstens, U., Heimann, M., Schmidt, M., Levin, I., Jacob, D., Podzun, R., Kazan, V., Sartorius, H., and Weingartner, E.: Transport of Rn-222 using the regional model REMO: a detailed comparison with measurements over Europe, Tellus B, 54, 850-871, DOI 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2002.01339.x, 2002 (go to)
     
  • Croize, L., Mondelain, D., Camy-Peyret, C., Delmotte, M., and Schmidt, M.: Precise measurements of the total concentration of atmospheric CO(2) and (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) isotopic ratio using a lead-salt laser diode spectrometer, Rev Sci Instrum, 79, Artn 043101 Doi 10.1063/1.2902829, 2008 (go to)
     
  • Gibert, F., Xueref-Remy, I., Joly, L., Schmidt, M., Cuesta, J., Davis, K. J., Ramonet, M., Flamant, P. H., Parvitte, B., and Zeninari, V.: A case study of CO2, CO and particles content evolution in the suburban atmospheric boundary layer using a 2-mu m Doppler DIAL, a 1-mu m backscatter lidar and an array of in-situ sensors, Bound-Lay Meteorol, 128, 381-401, DOI 10.1007/s10546-008-9296-8, 2008 (go to)
     
  • Gibert, F., Schmidt, M., Cuesta, J., Ciais, P., Ramonet, M., Xueref, I., Larmanou, E., and Flamant, P. H.: Retrieval of average CO2 fluxes by combining in situ CO2 measurements and backscatter lidar information, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 112, Artn D10301, Doi 10.1029/2006jd008190, 2007 (go to)
     
  • Bousquet, P., Ciais, P., Miller, J. B., Dlugokencky, E. J., Hauglustaine, D. A., Prigent, C., Van der Werf, P. R., Peylin, P., Brunke, E. G., Carouge, C., Langenfelds, R. L., Lathiere, J., Papa, F., Ramonet, M., Schmidt, M., Steele, L. P., Tyler, S. C., and White, J.: Contribution of anthropogenic and natural sources to atmospheric methane variability, Nature, 443, 439-443, Doi 10.1038/Nature05132, 2006 (go to)
     
  • Haszpra, L., Ramonet, M., Schmidt, M., Barcza, Z., Patkai, Z., Tarczay, K., Yver, C., Tarniewicz, J., and Ciais, P.: Variation of CO2 mole fraction in the lower free
    troposphere, in the boundary layer and at the surface, Atmos Chem Phys, 12, 8865-8875, DOI 10.5194/acp-12-8865-2012, 2012 (go to)
     
  • Kirschke, S., Bousquet, P., Ciais, P., Saunois, M., Canadell, J. G., Dlugokencky, E. J., Bergamaschi, P., Bergmann, D., Blake, D. R., Bruhwiler, L., Cameron-Smith, P., Castaldi, S., Chevallier, F., Feng, L., Fraser, A., Heimann, M., Hodson, E. L., Houweling, S., Josse, B., Fraser, P. J., Krummel, P. B., Lamarque, J.-F., Langenfelds, R. L., Le Quere, C., Naik, V., O'Doherty, S., Palmer, P. I., Pison, I., Plummer, D., Poulter, B., Prinn, R. G., Rigby, M., Ringeval, B., Santini, M., Schmidt, M., Shindell, D. T., Simpson, I. J., Spahni, R., Steele, L. P., Strode, S. A., Sudo, K., Szopa, S., van der Werf, G. R., Voulgarakis, A., van Weele, M., Weiss, R. F., Williams, J. E., and Zeng, G.: Three decades of global methane sources and sinks, Nature Geosci, 6, 813-823, 10.1038/ngeo1955 http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v6/n10/abs/ngeo1955.html#supplementary-information, 2013 (go to)
     
  • Langenfelds, R. L., van der Schoot, M. V., Francey, R. J., Steele, L. P., Schmidt, M., and Mukai, H.: Modification of air standard composition by diffusive and surface processes, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 110, Artn D13307, Doi 10.1029/2004jd005482, 2005 (go to)
     
  • Levin, I., Glatzel-Mattheier, H., Marik, T., Cuntz, M., Schmidt, M., and Worthy, D. E.: Verification of German methane emission inventories and their recent changes based on atmospheric observations, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 104, 3447-3456, Doi 10.1029/1998jd100064, 1999 (go to)
     
  • Levin, I., Born, M., Cuntz, M., Langendorfer, U., Mantsch, S., Naegler, T., Schmidt, M., Varlagin, A., Verclas, S., and Wagenbach, D.: Observations of atmospheric variability and soil exhalation rate of radon-222 at a Russian forest site - Technical approach and deployment for boundary layer studies, Tellus B, 54, 462-475, DOI 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2002.01346.x, 2002a (go to)
     
  • Levin, I., Ciais, P., Langenfelds, R., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Sidorov, K., Tchebakova, N., Gloor, M., Heimann, M., Schulze, E. D., Vygodskaya, N. N., Shibistova, O., and Lloyd, J.: Three years of trace gas observations over the EuroSiberian domain derived from aircraft sampling - a concerted action, Tellus B, 54, 696-712, DOI 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2002.01352.x, 2002b (go to)
     
  • Levin, I., Kromer, B., Schmidt, M., and Sartorius, H.: A novel approach for independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by (CO2)-C-14 observations, Geophys Res Lett, 30, Artn 2194 Doi 10.1029/2003gl018477, 2003 (go to)
     
  • Locatelli, R., Bousquet, P., Hourdin, F., Saunois, M., Cozic, A., Couvreux, F., Grandpeix, J. Y., Lefebvre, M. P., Rio, C., Bergamaschi, P., Chambers, S. D., Karstens, U., Kazan, V., van der Laan, S., Meijer, H. A. J., Moncrieff, J., Ramonet, M., Scheeren, H. A., Schlosser, C., Schmidt, M., Vermeulen, A., and Williams, A. G.: Atmospheric transport and chemistry of trace gases in LMDz5B: evaluation and implications for inverse modelling, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 7, 4993-5048, 10.5194/gmdd-7-4993-2014, 2014 (go to)
     
  • Lopez, M., Schmidt, M., Yver, C., Messager, C., Worthy, D., Kazan, V., Ramonet, M., Bousquet, P., and Ciais, P.: Seasonal variation of N2O emissions in France inferred from atmospheric N2O and Rn-222 measurements, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 117, Artn D14103, Doi 10.1029/2012jd017703, 2012 (go to )
  • Lopez, M., Schmidt, M., Delmotte, M., Colomb, A., Gros, V., Janssen, C., Lehman, S. J., Mondelain, D., Perrussel, O., Ramonet, M., Xueref-Remy, I., and Bousquet, P.: CO, NOx and (CO2)-C-13 as tracers for fossil fuel CO2: results from a pilot study in Paris during winter 2010, Atmos Chem Phys, 13, 7343-7358, 10.5194/acp-13-7343-2013, 2013(go to)
     
  • Messerschmidt, J., Geibel, M. C., Blumenstock, T., Chen, H., Deutscher, N. M., Engel, A., Feist, D. G., Gerbig, C., Gisi, M., Hase, F., Katrynski, K., Kolle, O., Lavric, J. V., Notholt, J., Palm, M., Ramonet, M., Rettinger, M., Schmidt, M., Sussmann, R., Toon, G. C., Truong, F., Warneke, T., Wennberg, P. O., Wunch, D., and Xueref-Remy, I.: Calibration of TCCON column-averaged CO2: the first aircraft campaign over European TCCON sites, Atmos Chem Phys, 11, 10765-10777, DOI 10.5194/acp-11-10765-2011, 2011 (go to)
     
  • Necki, J., Schmidt, M., Rozanski, K., Zimnoch, M., Korus, A., Lasa, J., Graul, R., and Levin, I.: Six-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane at a high-altitude mountain site in Poland, Tellus B, 55, 94-104, DOI 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2003.01446.x, 2003 (go to)
     
  • Peters, W., Krol, M. C., van der Werf, G. R., Houweling, S., Jones, C. D., Hughes, J., Schaefer, K., Masarie, K. A., Jacobson, A. R., Miller, J. B., Cho, C. H., Ramonet, M., Schmidt, M., Ciattaglia, L., Apadula, F., Helta, D., Meinhardt, F., di Sarra, A. G., Piacentino, S., Sferlazzo, D., Aalto, T., Hatakka, J., Strom, J., Haszpra, L., Meijer, H. A. J., van der Laan, S., Neubert, R. E. M., Jordan, A., Rodo, X., Morgui, J. A., Vermeulen, A. T., Popa, E., Rozanski, K., Zimnoch, M., Manning, A. C., Leuenberger, M., Uglietti, C., Dolman, A. J., Ciais, P., Heimann, M., and Tans, P. P.: Seven years of recent European net terrestrial carbon dioxide exchange constrained by atmospheric observations, Global Change Biol, 16, 1317-1337, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02078.x, 2010 (go to)
     
  • Pieterse, G., Krol, M. C., Batenburg, A. M., Brenninkmeijer, C. A., Popa, M. E., O'Doherty, S., Grant, A., Steele, L. P., Krummel, P. B., Langenfelds, R. L., Wang, H. J., Vermeulen, A. T., Schmidt, M., Yver, C., Jordan, A., Engel, A., Fisher, R. E., Lowry, D., Nisbet, E. G., Reimann, S., Vollmer, M. K., Steinbacher, M., Hammer, S., Forster, G., Sturges, W. T., and Rockmann, T.: Reassessing the variability in atmospheric H2 using the two-way nested TM5 model, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 118, 3764-3780, Doi 10.1002/Jgrd.50204, 2013 (go to)
     
  • Ramonet, M., Ciais, P., Aalto, T., Aulagnier, C., Chevallier, F., Cipriano, D., Conway, T. J., Haszpra, L., Kazan, V., Meinhardt, F., Paris, J. D., Schmidt, M., Simmonds, P., Xueref-Remy, I., and Necki, J. N.: A recent build-up of atmospheric CO2 over Europe. Part 1: observed signals and possible explanations, Tellus B, 62, 1-13, DOI 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2009.00442.x, 2010 (go to)
     
  • Romanini, D., Chenevier, M., Kassi, S., Schmidt, M., Valant, C., Ramonet, M., Lopez, J., and Jost, H. J.: Optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption: a compact spectrometer for real-time measurement of atmospheric methane, Appl Phys B-Lasers O, 83, 659-667, DOI 10.1007/s00340-006-2177-2, 2006 (go to)
     
  • Schmidt, M., Graul, R., Sartorius, H., and Levin, I.: Carbon dioxide and methane in continental Europe: A climatology, and (222)Radon-based emission estimates, Tellus B, 48, 457-473, DOI 10.1034/j.1600-0889.1994.t01-2-00002.x-i1, 1996 (go to )
     
  • Schmidt, M.: Messung und Bilanzierung anthropogener Treibhausgase in Deutschland. 1999 (go to)
     
  • Schmidt, M., Glatzel-Mattheier, H., Sartorius, H., Worthy, D. E., and Levin, I.: Western European N2O emissions: A top-down approach based on atmospheric observations, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 106, 5507-5516, Doi 10.1029/2000jd900701, 2001(go to)
     
  • Schmidt, M., Graul, R., Sartorius, H., and Levin, I.: The Schauinsland CO2 record: 30 years of continental observations and their implications for the variability of the European CO2 budget, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 108, Artn 4619, Doi 10.1029/2002jd003085, 2003 (go to)
     
  • Schmidt, M., Lopez, M., Yver Kwok, C., Messager, C., Ramonet, M., Wastine, B., Vuillemin, C., Truong, F., Gal, B., Parmentier, E., Cloué, O., and Ciais, P.: Six years of high-precision quasi-continuous atmospheric greenhouse gas measurements at Trainou Tower (Orléans Forest, France), Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 7, 569-604, 10.5194/amtd-7-569-2014, 2014a (go to)
     
  • Schmidt, M., Lopez, M., Yver Kwok, C., Messager, C., Ramonet, M., Wastine, B., Vuillemin, C., Truong, F., Gal, B., Parmentier, E., Cloué, O., and Ciais, P.: High-precision quasi-continuous atmospheric greenhouse gas measurements at Trainou tower (Orléans forest, France), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2283-2296, 10.5194/amt-7-2283-2014, 2014b (go to)
     
  • Sidorov, K., Sogachev, A., Langendorfer, U., Lloyd, J., Nepomniachii, I. L., Vygodskaya, N. N., Schmidt, M., and Levin, I.: Seasonal variability of greenhouse gases in the lower troposphere above the eastern European taiga (Syktyvkar, Russia), Tellus B, 54, 735-748, DOI 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2002.201391.x, 2002 (go to)
     
  • Sturm, P., Leuenberger, M., and Schmidt, M.: Atmospheric O-2, CO2 and delta C-13 observations from the remote sites Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, and Puy de Dome, France, Geophys Res Lett, 32, Artn L17811, Doi 10.1029/2005gl023304, 2005.
     
  • Thom, M., Bosinger, R., Schmidt, M., and Levin, I.: The Regional Budget of Atmospheric Methane of a Highly Populated Area, Chemosphere, 26, 143-160, Doi 10.1016/0045-6535(93)90418-5, 1993 (go to)
     
  • Wang, Z., Deutscher, N. M., Warneke, T., Notholt, J., Dils, B., Griffith, D. W. T., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., and Gerbig, C.: Retrieval of tropospheric column-averaged CH4 mole fraction by solar absorption FTIR-spectrometry using N2O as a proxy, Atmos Meas Tech, 7, 3295-3305, DOI 10.5194/amt-7-3295-2014, 2014 (go to)
     
  • Xueref-Remy, I., Dieudonné, E., Vuillemin, C., Lopez, M., Lac, C., Schmidt, M., Delmotte, M., Chevallier, F., Ravetta, F., Perrussel, O., Ciais, P., Bréon, F. M., Broquet, G., Ramonet, M., Spain, T. G., and Ampe, C.: Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Paris megacity area, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 2016, 1-51, 10.5194/acp-2016-218, 2016 (go to)
     
  • Yver, C., Schmidt, M., Bousquet, P., Zahorowski, W., and Ramonet, M.: Estimation of the molecular hydrogen soil uptake and traffic emissions at a suburban site near Paris through hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and radon-222 semicontinuous measurements, J Geophys Res-Atmos, 114, Artn D18304 Doi 10.1029/2009jd012122, 2009 (go to)
     
  • Yver, C., Schmidt, M., Bousquet, P., and Ramonet, M.: Measurements of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide on the Trainou tall tower, Tellus B, 63, 52-63, 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00520.x, 2011a (go to)
     
  • Yver, C. E., Pison, I. C., Fortems-Cheiney, A., Schmidt, M., Chevallier, F., Ramonet, M., Jordan, A., Sovde, O. A., Engel, A., Fisher, R. E., Lowry, D., Nisbet, E. G., Levin, I., Hammer, S., Necki, J., Bartyzel, J., Reimann, S., Vollmer, M. K., Steinbacher, M., Aalto, T., Maione, M., Arduini, J., O'Doherty, S., Grant, A., Sturges, W. T., Forster, G. L., Lunder, C. R., Privalov, V., Paramonova, N., Werner, A., and Bousquet, P.: A new estimation of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen budget using atmospheric observations and variational inversion, Atmos Chem Phys, 11, 3375-3392, 10.5194/acp-11-3375-2011, 2011b (go to)
     
  • Zhang, K., Feichter, J., Kazil, J., Wan, H., Zhuo, W., Griffiths, A. D., Sartorius, H., Zahorowski, W., Ramonet, M., Schmidt, M., Yver, C., Neubert, R. E. M., and Brunke, E. G.: Radon activity in the lower troposphere and its impact on ionization rate: a global estimate using different radon emissions, Atmos Chem Phys, 11, 7817-7838, DOI 10.5194/acp-11-7817-2011, 2011 (go to)