Vorlesung "Aquatische Physik II"

Prof. W. Aeschbach-Hertig

Sommersemester 2005
Di, 16:15-18:00, INF229, Seminarraum 108
Beginn: 12.4.2005
 

Inhalt: Methoden zur Untersuchung aquatischer Systeme (Grundwasser, Seen, Ozean), insbesondere Umwelttracer- und Isotopenmethoden (stabile Isotope, Radioisotope, konservative Gase). Grundlagen der Methoden: Isotopenfraktionierung, radioaktiver Zerfall, Gaslöslichkeiten. Prinzipien der Modellierung. Anwendungen auf hydrologische und paläoklimatologische Probleme.
Zielgruppe: Höhere Semester
Voraussetzungen: Vordiplom (Besuch von AP I wird NICHT vorausgesetzt)
Literatur: UNESCO/IAEA Series on Environmental Isotopes in the Hydrological Cycle, Principles and Applications (Ed. W.G. Mook) http://www.iaea.org/programmes/ripc/ih/volumes/volumes.htm

 

Contents and Lecture Notes

1. Introduction - Isotopes (12.4.05)
Intro isotope hydrology; Literature on isotope hydrology; Introduction to isotopes; Radioactivity; Overview of isotopes/tracers in hydrology

Links to Nuclide Charts on the Web:
Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute
Berkeley and Lunds University
Information on Isotopes in Hydrology (SAHRA)


2. Introduction - Hydrology (19.4.05)
Intro hydrology: Global hydrological cycle, water balance; Intro aquatic physics and hydrogeology: Turbulent diffusion, Darcy, groundwater transport equations

Link to a website on water and its properties


3. Introduction Stable Isotopes (26.4.05)
Introduction to stable isotopes


4. Stable Isotopes, Theory (3.5.05)
Isotope fractionation; Rayleigh fractionation; Stable isotopes of water in the hydrological cycle (GMWL)


5. Stable Isotopes, Applications (10.5.05)
Stable isotopes of water in the hydrological cycle (isotope effects); Stable isotopes as paleoclimate indicators; Stable isotopes in groundwater hydrology


6. Tritium (17.5.05)
Properties and distribution of tritium; Analytical methods; Simple applications

Link to reports on radioactivity (incl. tritium) in the environment from the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz.


7. Tritium and 3He (24.5.05)
Basics of the 3H-3He method; Calculation of tritiogenic 3He; Applications of the 3H-3He method

Link to the WOCE homepage of the Lamont tracer group, a gateway to resources on 3H-3He in oceanography.


8. Analytical methods (31.5.05)
Principles of measurement; Lab-tour

Links to some isotope laboratories:
IAEA Isotope Hydrology Lab
University of Waterloo, Environmental Isotope Laboratory
Lamont-Doherty Environmental Tracer Group (noble gas mass spectrometry)
University of Utah, Dissolved gas lab
Universität Bremen, noble gas lab
AMS-lab in Lund, Sweden (intro to AMS)
AMS-lab in Zurich, Switzerland (strong in new developments)
AMS by Ansto Environment, Australia (good intro to AMS)


9. Dating young waters (7.6.05)
Transient trace gas methods: CFCs, SF6, 85Kr; Multitracer studies; Effects of mixing

Links:
An oceanographic tracer site
The USGS tracer laboratory


10. Principles of Modeling (14.6.05)
Box or lumped parameter models; Worksheet for box models

Download page for boxmodel-workbook (direct link to zip-file)
Link to UNESCO-report on tracers for recharge assessment (includes documentation of boxmodel worksheet)
Other software on box models: LUMPED and TRACER (Ozyurt and Bayari)


11. Modeling and Intro Radiocarbon Dating (21.6.05)
Numerical flow and transport models; Basic principles of 14C dating


12. Radiocarbon Dating (28.6.05)
Basic principles of 14C dating; Complications of 14C dating of groundwater; 14C correction models (Fontes&Garnier); Effect of mixing

Links to 14C-related sites:
Radiocarbon (journal homepage with information and links)
Radiocarbon Web-Info
Link to UNESCO-report on tracers for recharge assessment (includes chapter (7) and exercises on 14C-dating; same as listed above, ch. 10)


13. Noble Gases (5.7.05)
Noble gases in hydrology; Atmospheric solubility equilibrium; Noble gas components in groundwater; Excess air models; Applications of the noble gas palaeothermometer

 

Zusätzliches Material aus der Vorlesung
"Umwelttracer in Atmosphäre und terrestrischen Systemen"
Wintersemester 2004/05 (W. Aeschbach-Hertig/I. Levin)

A1. Radon in der Hydrosphäre

A2. Isotope zum Studium von Kontamination und Abbau im Grundwasser

A3. Radioaktive Edelgasisotope (39Ar, 81Kr, 85Kr)

Literatur zu A3: Review Collon et al. (2004) online
Links zu Messmethoden:
Low Level Counting, Uni Bern
ATTA, Argonne National Lab